In addition he established the newspaper Young India later renamed Harijan and contributed essays on such topics as land reform, Indian textile manufacture, village industry, and education reform.
When his crusade in protest of legislation that prohibited organized political opposition to the British government erupted in violence in , Gandhi ended the campaign and embarked on a widely publicized fast in order to return to nonviolent means of achieving his political aims. Throughout the s and s Gandhi developed a social and economic philosophy that supported his efforts for Swaraj Indian home rule.
Key events of the period include the Salt March of , in which he led a group of several thousand followers on a mile trek to the sea in protest of a salt tax imposed by the British government, and the Roundtable Conference of , a series of discussions held in London on the future of India. Gandhi was imprisoned numerous times as a result of his civil disobedience but continued to work for a peaceful end to British colonial rule and Indian national unity.
While Indian political freedom was granted in , factions within the country were unable to resolve their differences and the subcontinent was partitioned into India and Pakistan. In January a fast by Gandhi motivated Hindu and Moslem leaders to end the continuing violence between religious sects. He was assassinated soon afterward by a Hindu extremist who opposed Gandhi's tolerance for other religious groups.
Gandhi was a prolific writer who published works in a variety of genres, including essays, poetry, letters, philosophy, and autobiography, and his works are chiefly noted for revealing the development of his religious philosophy, social program, and political technique of Satyagraha.
As outlined in An Autobiography; or, The Story of My Experiments with Truth, Gandhi's ideas derived from traditional Hindu beliefs as well as from aspects of Christianity and other religious faiths. Gandhi also credited the philosophy of nonviolence advocated by the Russian novelist Leo Tolstoy, the anti-industrial social theories propounded by the English philosopher John Ruskin, and the principles delineated by Henry David Thoreau in his essay "Civil Disobedience" as contributing substantially to the formation of his thought.
He was even thrown out of a train because he dared to travel in the first class with a white man. These trials, tribulations and travails helped him a lot to ponder hard on the matter and to turn towards God for light, guidance and help. This process of deep introspection and prayer, soon transformed him into a determined vocal, analytical and committed person. Spiritually, he grew in stature rapidly and found his self-confidence and moorings. He resolved to renounce wealth and materialistic possessions to become a true Karma yogi.
He then took a vow of strict celibacy with the due knowledge and consent of his wife Kasturba. He set up Phoenix Farm near Durban and continued his experiments with truth and soul-searching. These studies strengthened further his convictions, resolves and vows regarding non-violence, brahamcharya, non-possession, devotion to God and service to the humanity at large. He had his first practice session in non-violence, civil disobedience and service on a very small scale.
He led the Indian community against very discriminatory and prejudicial laws which required them to be registered and finger-printed and carry special identity cards.
It was an object lesson in how to serve the mankind which earned him appreciation and admiration of many in the government and the public. He returned to India in and was accorded a very warm reception on his return to his country on January 9. He established an ashram on the bank of river Sabarmati, near Ahmadabad on the same lines and principles on which had done so in South Africa. He came under the influence of moderate Congress leader Gopal Krishna Gokhle, and began to regard himself as his follower.
He championed the cause of the indigo farmers of Champaran in Bihar against their exploitation. In he began the Kheda peasant satyagraha and then a movement against Rowlett Act by giving nationwide call for hartal for a day. His identification with the poor and downtrodden masses of India was natural, spontaneous and complete. His utter simplicity, sincerity and deep faith in the noble cause of freedom and welfare of the people helped him to turn the freedom struggle into a mass movement.
Soon he became synonymous with Congress and the freedom movement. He inspired the masses with confidence, courage and hope. He introduced Khadi and popularized the spinning wheel to mitigate the sufferings of the rural poor. The wheel and Khadi soon became powerful weapons and symbols of national unity, integration, social renaissance and a kind of economical revolution among the masses.
He travelled extensively, met people, exchanged ideas with them, won their hearts and minds and converted them into his faith. Crowds rushed to see him, to know his views and to seek his guidance on various issues. They became integral part of his crusade against slavery, exploitation, injustice, suppression, hatred and violence. The waste of human ability energy and money on armament will continue unabated, and diversion of world resources to development will remain a pipe dream, so long as man does not learn the great lesson which Gandhi preached so convincingly in our own times-viz.
The diversion of world resources to development stands no practical chance of being heeded unless and until the balance of terror is replaced by the balance of terror is replaced, by the balance of reason.
Although it is true that India has been an integrated nation since olden times; it is also true that on the present context Gandhian values have special significance for national integration. Today communal amity has become essential for national integration and hence Gandhi gave it the highest priority. By communal unity Gandhiji did not mean merely paying lip service to 'bhaibhai-ism'. He meant it to be an unbreakable heart unity'.
In the religious context Gandhi emphasized that communal unity has to be based on equal respect for all religions. Everyone, Gandhi said, must have the same regard for other faiths as he had for his own. Such respect would not only remove religious rifts but lead to a realization of the fact that religion was a stabilizing force, not a disturbing element.
Gandhi's basic axiom was that religion since the scriptures of all religions point only in one direction of goodwill, openness and understanding between men and men and between community and community. Gandhiji regarded education as the light of life and the very source from which was created an awareness of oneness.
Gandhi believed that the universality of religion can best be realized through the universlization of education, and that such universalization was the spring board for national integration. Harmony is not brought about about overnight. Gandhi advocated the process of patience, persuasion and perseverance for attainment of peace and love for harmony and was firmly convinced of the worth of gentleness as panacea for all evils.
Communal harmony had the pride of place in Gandhi's constructive programme. He taught us the dignity of labour as a leveling social factor that contributed to a national outlook in keeping with the vision of new India.
Free Gandhi papers, essays, and research papers. The Hidden Side of the Influential Leader, Gandhi - The Hidden Side of the Influential Leader, Gandhi Once stated, “Just as there are two sides to every story, there are two sides to every person.
Mahatma Gandhi Essay 3 ( words) Mahatma Gandhi was a great and outstanding personality of the India who is still inspiring the people in the country as well as abroad through his legacy of greatness, idealness and noble life.
Gandhi Jayanti: In India, Gandhi Jayanti is celebrated every-year on the day of his birth-anniversary. It is a national holiday. It is a national holiday. The world celebrates 2nd October as the International day of non-violence. Gandhi was a prolific writer who published works in a variety of genres, including essays, poetry, letters, philosophy, and autobiography, and his .
The Relevance of Gandhi For All Times is an essay witten by Ravi Kumar on Gandhiji. This section contains Prize-winning Essays of the classical contest organised by CITYJAN Newsweekly, Navi Mumbai on the occasion of Gandhi . Mahatma Gandhi essaysMahatma Gandhi was born on October 2, in Probander India. Gandhi's real name is Mohandas. He is called Mahatma because Mahatma means "Great Soul" and was called this for his mind on the matter of Indian rights. He was devoted to helping the Indian people.