Now that some of the risk factors are known, can breast cancer be prevented? While it is not possible to completely prevent the disease it is possible to reduce the risk with a hormone called Tamoxifen. Tamoxifen is an antiestrogen drug which is most often taken in pill form for approximately five years. This hormone is not only used as a preventive treatment for development of cancer in those people who have not had it , but it is also used to prevent a second episode of the disease and to prevent further tumor development during the actual disease process.
Unfortunately, this therapy does not come without side effects. The use of this drug increases the risk for developing uterine carcinoma, a rare and potentially serious condition. Other side effects include weight gain, mood swings, hot flashes, blood clots and cataracts.
Because of these serious side effects it is important for a patient to weigh their options, but more often then not the benefits prevail.
Symptoms found with breast cancer are masses, pain, erythema, nipple drainage, and enlarged lymph nodes. The most common complaint which causes women to seek medical attention is a breast mass. The etiology for fibroadenoma is unknown, but the pathogenesis is a clonal stromal component.
There is proliferation of both the ducts and the stroma, numerous fibroblasts of the stroma can be seen along with a pale eosinophilic cytoplasm. The typical duct epithelium often lines the glandular spaces which may lead to compression because of this fibrous proliferation.
There are two types of breast pain, cyclic and non-cyclic. Non-cyclic pain however, is often only experienced in certain area of the breast. This pain may sometimes be caused by injury or trauma to the breast such as after a breast biopsy.
It is associated with both pre and post menopausal women and is most common in 40 to 50 year old. Although these pains often subside after a couple of years and are not usually associated with breast cancer the possibility still exists and therefore should be discussed with a physician. Another symptom is erythema, an abnormal redness of the skin. There is dilation of the superficial capillaries of the skin which then leads to inflammation and redness. The tumor or cyst may cause this hypersensitive, inflammatory reaction, although it is not known for sure.
Yet another symptom related to breast cancer can be nipple discharge. The majority of nipple discharges are associated with non-malignant changes and are often caused by hormonal changes. Discharge is a concern when it is bloody, sticky and clear, brown or black, is spontaneous, or unilateral. Finally, discussion of the last symptom of breast cancer is enlarged lymph nodes. The enlargement is due to the production of additional white blood cells which helps ward off infection.
The infections that cause this inflammation are often benign, but can be caused by the presence of cancer cells. Unfortunately, the only way to find out whether the cause of the swelling is cancerous or non-cancerous is to perform a biopsy. However, some signs are more associated with being benign, such as, a node that is less than one centimeter in size, and is soft, rubbery and tender.
Lymph nodes are also the key factors in staging breast cancer and determining the prognosis of a patient. Stage one show a tumor which is less than 2 cm in size with no lymph node involvement or metastasis.
In stage four the tumor size is not applicable, nor is lymph node involvement, but there is metastasis of other tissues. Doctors have identified several kinds of breast cancers. This is not to mention the many cases in which a tumor in the breast is nothing more than a cyst or a harmless benign lump ACS, online.
Those cancers which remain inside the duct without spreading out are known as in situ cancers. On the other hand, if the cancer cells spread out and invade other areas, they are known as invasive cancers.
In inflammatory cases, the cancer cells spread very fast and invade other cells, but it can be identified very easily because it blocks the lymph vessels and the channels in the skin, turning the breast into a hard and warm surface with a clear red color ACS, online. Breast cancers can be caused by a variety of factors. Until today, many doctors believe that breast cancer has to do with heredity.
Furthermore, a gene known as p53 that is directly responsible for causing breast cancer has been found in extremely rare cases. In the families in which this gene existed, the risk of contracting breast cancer was 16 times more than average. However, there still seems to be some evidence relating breast cancer to genetic factors. Both the breast and the glands that produce wax in ears belong to the same family of glands. Researchers found that individuals with ear glands that produce wet wax have a double risk with respect to breast cancer in contrast to those whose ear glands produce dry wax.
Another risk related factor to breast cancer is menstruation. Doctors have discovered that risks of breast cancer are very high for women who menstruate before the age of 12 or who reach menopause after the age of fifty. Women who do not get pregnant at all or who become pregnant after the age of thirty also face very high risks. Doctors today are becoming more convinced that diet and breast cancer could be connected in some strong relationship.
Most diets that are highly related to breast cancers include chemicals in hair dyes, high alcohol consumption, birth control pills and many others. Nevertheless, evidence in this respect has not been yet established. In fact, many of the research efforts conducted on these factors have shown contradicting results.
Detecting breast cancer is both easy and difficult. Figure 1 below shows the incidence of breast cancer, along with the mortality and clearly shows that, whilst screening is not reducing the number of cases that occur it is having an effect on the proportion of cases that resulting fatality. The prevalence the number of people in a population who have been previously diagnosed with the disease of breast cancer has been indicated to be around out of a total population of in the UK with 1 in 3 living female cancer patients having received a diagnosis of breast cancer.
Breast cancer also affects males, with 0. Breast cancer shows no signs when tumour is small and quite treatable. For sighting breast cancer at the beginning stages before any symptoms start to develop, it is essential for women to abide by the recommended screening guidelines.
Important symptoms to be noted are the formation of a painless lump, when the cancer grows and starts to be felt. Sometimes, the tumour spreads to under arm lymph nodes and thus, causes a lump or swelling to originate even before it is actually large enough to be felt. The most common signs and symptoms to look for are, pain in the breast, feeling of heaviness of the breast, changes in the shape of the breast, if the skin of the breast region shows signs of swelling, thickening or reddening, discharge from nipples especially if it contains blood, nipple erosion, inversion and tenderness.
However, it must be taken into notice that these pains may not always represent the presence of breast cancer. Any abnormality which is persistent in the breast should be assessed by a physician at early stages. Epidemiology of cancer determines the frequency and distribution of a disease and other health related events in a defined population. Epidemiological studies enable trends to be monitored over time and draws attention to deviations from normal patterns in subpopulations.
Examples of epidemiological factors that may affect the occurrence of cancer are age, gender, race and geography. Although, a global advancement in diagnosis and treatment has been seen, the weight of cancer on the world is still increasing.
Through epidemiological studies it has been seen that many cancers can be prevented. Cancer prevention includes primary, secondary and prevention methods. Primary prevention refers to avoiding cancer-causing substances in the environment or dietary elements associated with increased risk; dietary supplementation with putative protective agents. Secondary prevention aims at early detection and removal of benign tumours of oral, cervical and breast cancers.
It was estimated that in the year , over 10 million new cases of cancer worldwide occurred approximately 5. The most frequently affected organs are lung, breast, colon, rectum, stomach and liver. Incidence is the proportion in the number of new cases within a specified time. Prevalence is the total number of cases of a disease that exist at one point in time.
When expressed in a defined population. Mortality refers to the number of deaths from a specific disease over a specified time period.
Morbidity is a general description of the severity of sickness, measured in various ways, including:. Understanding epidemiology can help to unravel the aetiology, or cause, of a cancer. In the recent years there has been an increase in the occurrence of cancer.
The main factors contributing to this is due to urbanization, life style changes, industrialization, population growth and increased life span. It was 45 years in and increased to 62 years in This raise will cause a paradigm shift in the disease pattern from communicable diseases to non-communicable diseases like cancer, diabetes and hypertension. Cancer is considered the secondary death to mankind with nearly 5.
It is estimated that cancer prevalence in India is close to 2. The impact of cancer is more than plain numbers.
Breast cancer research paper: Contact theuniversitypapers team to do your breast cancer research papers now: The twentieth century has often been called as the cancer century.
Finally, the research paper will be ended with some complications and the prognosis of this disease. Although breast cancer occurs in both men and women the prevalence is low in men. Out of every women who are diagnosed with breast cancer only one man is which is why this paper will concentrate on the disease process in women.
Research Paper on Breast Cancer - According to the American Cancer Society, Each year, more than , women are diagnosed with breast cancer; furthermore Twelve percent of all women will contract the disease, and % of them will die from breast cancer (American Cancer Society, ). There are risk factors that may lead to . Research Paper On Breast Cancer Breast cancer, as the name says it, develops from breast cells and it is the most invasive type of cancer in females. It consists in two different forms of disease, depending on the place it develops.
Writing a research paper about breast cancer it is important to include five basic parts into it. The introduction should contain the definition of the disease, its history and some statistics on the victims. Breast Cancer Research Papers Breast Cancer research papers explain the most recent research on Breast Cancer. This is a topic suggestion on Breast Cancer from Paper Masters. Use this topic or order a custom research paper, written exactly how you need it .