For Pythagoras the soul was immortal and fated to experience multiple lives as it traveled through cycles of life, death, and transmigration or reincarnation. As a consequence of this belief, Pythagoras preached the kinship of all creatures, each of which possessed a soul.
The Pythagorean religion thus prohibited the consumption of meat on the grounds that the animals might contain the souls of those who were once, or in the future would be, human. Release from the cycle of reincarnation could be achieved, however, by sustained contemplation—namely the pursuit of philosophy—which brought about purification of the soul.
Pythagoras seems to have elicited the awe and esteem of many in antiquity and the derision of a select few. A semi-divine figure to some, including Isocrates, who transmits many of the legends surrounding him in his Busiris, Pythagoras has been closely associated with the god Apollo, and tales of his incredible power and wisdom were common.
Others, including his contemporary, Heracles, called him a charlatan and a deceiver. Negative assessments formed the minority opinion, however, excepting the weighty conclusions of Aristotle, who revealed many of the more absurd practices of Pythagoras, including his obsession with the spiritual qualities of numbers. Modern criticism has tended to focus on the mass of contradictory evidence concerning the philosopher and the question of his real influence on the development of Greek philosophy.
Because of the lack of texts written by Pythagoras himself, scholars have been forced to rely on the documents of such later individuals as Philolaus, a Pythagorean who flourished in the fifth century B. Twentieth-century critics have also undertaken the process of separating the scientific and mathematical discoveries that were likely made by later Pythagoreans from the largely spiritual and mystical thought of Pythagoras himself. Most now agree that the main contributions of the philosopher seem to have been in relation to his cosmology—particularly his synthesis of mathematical and musical forms into a theory of divine harmony—and his theory of the soul, which seems not to have existed in Greek thought prior to Pythagoras and which exerted a tremendous influence on later Platonic philosophy.
Major Works Largely due to the secretive and mystic nature of the Pythagorean order, Pythagoras produced no written works, relying instead on the oral transmission of his teachings. McPeek further blames Jonson for this corruption: That translation is believed to have been Sir Philip Sidney's rendering of poem 70 in Certain Sonnets, however, it was not published until This means that Jonson's knowledge of the poem must have come from the Latin text printed in C.
Catulli, Albii, Tibulli, Sex. Egyptian Pyramids History and Construction. The pharaoh would first establish a committee composed of an overseer of construction, a chief engineer and an architect.
The pyramids were usually placed on the western side of the Nile because the pharaoh's soul was meant to join with the sun disc during its descent before continuing with the sun in its eternal round. Added Redford, the two deciding factors when choosing a building site were its orientation to the western horizon where the sun set and the proximity to Memphis, the central city of ancient Egypt" Science Daily. The entire process was thought out to complete a journey that would extend beyond life.
Most historical experts believe ramps were the mode of building the pyramids up. Donald Redford agrees with the prevailing thought that ramps were used to build pyramids. These ramps…… [Read More]. Raphael's School of Athens A. It is not simply an imagined portrait of famous people; rather it is a philosophical treatise, in symbolic form, of what it meant to be a great man, as embodied in these different figures. Glenn Most, in his article "The School of Athens and its Pre-text" from Critical Inquiry agrees that the central question of the School of Athens is "How can an artist represent pictorially an intellectual activity like philosophy?
In the School of Athens, Raphael chooses to do so by depicting the manifold set of ratiocinative and discursive activities performed on a sunny day in a splendid building by a large number of adult male philosophers… because Raphael's image has embedded itself so deeply in our visual unconscious.
It requires an effort of the historical imagination to recognize that this was not an inevitable, or even a likely,…… [Read More]. Raphael's Painting School of Athens. Support for the figure being Diogenes rather than Socrates has been found in the fact that he is prone, and alone, which seems to suggest Diogenes' status as an antisocial Cynic -- he also called himself a 'dog. This would suggest that the figure is Socrates.
The bowl besides the lying figure if it is Socrates could symbolically signify his drinking of hemlock also suggests the death of Christ. Raphael, a Neo-Platonist in his philosophy, thus gave particular importance to Socrates' martyrdom Bell The artwork, as a glorification of the human, is sublimely Renaissance in nature, and typical of the period but it is also unique in the way that it celebrates philosophers and their intellectual arts,…… [Read More].
School of Athens an Illustration. Lahanas even suggests that the painting may be a reproduction of Plato's Academy. This concept would emphasize a commitment to learning, as well as an interest in antiquity and classical learning.
The architecture depicted is a "modification of Bramante's first design for St. The combination of classical scholars, emphasis on learning, and suggestion of St. Peter's draws together all of the relevant characteristics of the Renaissance. First, Raphael most obviously alludes to the Renaissance's interest in antiquity with the identifiable Greek scholars.
That two of the most prominent classical philosophers are prominent, suggesting not only their importance, but also the importance of the classical period. In addition, the situation in which the philosophers are located places an emphasis on the importance of learning…… [Read More]. Christianity the Ecclesiastical History of.
Also, men oppose her for reasons of jealousy, he stresses, not because they really think that she is acting in an anti-Christian manner. Thus while Socrates Scholasticus himself never even entertained any point-of-view remotely considered heretic, including Gnosticism and Manichaeism as well as Arianism, he never condoned violence and was able to see how personal and political biases could fuel hateful actions masking as 'anti-heretical' actions like the murder of a woman preacher.
Although he on a few occasions used the term "evil" is in regards to the Arians, and he gave ample attention to the benefits of the creation of the creed of Nicene, praising its ideals, more often than not Socrates Scholasticus used cool and factual language to describe controversies. Sometimes even the Arians who denied the consubstantiality of the Son with the Father and Trinitarian notions of God are given a chance, through excerpts, to 'speak' their…… [Read More].
How Euclid Has Been an Influence. The dates are not exact as little is known about Euclid's life. It is generally believed that he studied under the students of Plato and it is known that he established a school of mathematics and taught at the library in Alexandria.
His most well-known work is The Elements, which is a wonderfully organized development of the plane and solid geometry, geometric algebra, theory of proportions, number theory, and the theory of irrational numbers known then. The work is divided into 13 books and contains propositions. Egyptian Hieroglyphics and Other Ancient Symbols on 18th, 19th and 20th Century Surface Pattern Design and Their Influences on Contemporary Design Hieroglyphics are a system of picture-writing, from the Greek, literally meaning "sacred carvings"; these symbols were used extensively on the walls of Egyptian tombs and temples, as well as columns and in written texts Cavendish This paper will provide an analysis of the influence of Egyptian hieroglyphics and other ancient symbols on 18th, 19th and 20th century surface pattern design and their influences on contemporary design, taking account of the impact on design practice of digital techniques today.
A discussion of designers from these periods illustrating their work will be followed by suggestions for critical analysis, and an examination of possible philosophical questions to be considered related to a future professional practice.
A summary of the research will be provided in the conclusion. Background and…… [Read More]. Tao Te Ching Was Written. In sports terms, to which most Americans can relate, it is the idea of passing backward in soccer in order to move forward with the ball.
Also, in arguments, it is making a concession to keep the communication going. In labor disputes, it is compromising to find a middle ground. Many times one has to yield, back down, empty oneself before overcoming, feeling straight, filling up. James Autrey wrote, eal Power: Business Lessons from the Tao Te Ching that covers a prime way that this paradoxical thought of Tao Te Ching can be understood by the modern manager -- as a means of gaining the most valued and elusive prize in business: Autrey responds to the questions, What exactly is power, and where does it come from?
Does power automatically come with authority? Does it come from one's superiors, or do people create it for themselves? And why is…… [Read More]. Raphael's School of Athens Biography. Beginning with the major arch of the Stanze that frames the entire piece, there recedes a series of concentric circles that focus down to the archway that frames the two central figures.
This can be seen as a nearly literal rippling effect of the wisdom of these two great thinkers off into space, and into the mind of the viewer. Working from largest to smallest, we can see that the pattern is ultimately infinite since it ends with the focal point discussed in the previous paragraph. This seems to reflect the philosophy that the more focused a philosophy comes, and the finite the topics, the closer it gets to circling back again into the infinite.
The integration of a dialectic of ideas is achieved through an intricate working of visual lines. The strong diagonals of the heads of the two statues and the heads of the two major figures creates…… [Read More].
Plato the Republic There Have. The text deals at length and often with a great variety of matters which bear on the human condition, but there are matters which would certainly have no place in a modern treatise on politics" Therefore, it is rather hard to determine the extent to which Plato used this means of communication, the dialogues, to point out to the actual necessities of the society he lived in and the aspects that needed changes.
In particular, the arguments he provides from the realities of the time are provided by Plato to merely support his own line of thought related to the philosophical ideas on happiness and justice. An aspect that firmly relates to the way in which the "Republic" is constructed and that uses the arguments on the ideal state is related to the role the state may have in providing its citizens here, the term "citizen" must be understood as…… [Read More].
Anthony the Great Why St. Anthony is recognized as the head of the monastic family. His date of birth was in and somewhere in Egypt. His parents died when he was only sixteen years old. He remained to be the guardian of his younger sibling, Dious. Six months after the demise of his parents, he went to the church to hear the word of our lord. From the fortune his family left behind, he sold acres land that was fertile and the proceeds he gave the poor remaining with a little for taking care of his sister.
He left the sister to be taken care of by the community of virgins. This allowed him to be free and…… [Read More]. The main reason for this is the limited level of exposure to the language. It is generally understood and practically acknowledged that words form the basic unit of language structure. Therefore lack of sufficient vocabulary constrains students from effectively communicating and freely expressing their ideas.
Vocabulary competence is critical to developing reading comprehension skills. Lack of vocabulary development is detrimental to the development of metacognitive skill that is important in comprehending advanced texts. Therefore, reading comprehension it is quite challenging for students lacking adequate knowledge of meaning of words. In more ancient times, curious folks would search for knowledge and wisdom in this form of relationship at least since the days of Pythagoras, Lao-Tse and numerous others spread throughout the world.
More primitive cultures sought the advice of the eccentric medicine man or shaman to gain insight into their worlds. The purpose of this essay is to analyze the PHD movie and contrast this story to my own personal experiences with this subject.
College is an institution. It is a self preserving organization with clear and explicit hierarchies. Entrance into this special group requires certain accreditation. The PHD is this golden ticket to enter this realm and become a guru within academic society. A tragedy is any event which causes great suffering and stress, such as the death of a loved one or a natural disaster.
In the context of Greek literature, tragedy was the most popular form of theatre, with storytellers relying on the rhetorical technique of tragic irony to create emotionally resonant tales of lost love and territorial conquest.
The overall study of the human condition, reality, metaphysics, and other pursuits of higher intelligence. The scientific study of the human mind, including cognitive function, perception, attention, emotion and behavior.
The fundamental application of reasoning to the pursuit of problem solving, a function which only the human mind is known to hold the capacity to perform. The branch of philosophy which postulates certain standards which should be used to guide proper human conduct. Plato -- Life and Works Plato Was. He lost his father at an early age, but through his mother's marriage to a friend of the leading statesman and general of Athens at the time, Plato became affiliated with some of the most influential circles of a city enjoying a Golden Age.
Plato was reared in the house of his step-father, learning first the works of Cratylus, Parmenides and Pythagoras, and then learning under Socrates, who was friends with Plato's uncle Charmides. Thus, the meeting between Plato and Socrates is not surprising as they…… [Read More]. Lives of Archimedes and Carl Friedrich Gauss. This son of an astronomer and mathematician was born into a distinguished family and was able to comfortably devote his life to mathematical research.
Carl Friedrich Gauss was born into a humble German family. His early mathematical promise marked him as a prodigy and eventually earned him admission to university. Major Mathematical Ideas The mathematical work of Archimedes centered on the theoretical, particularly geometry. His greatest mathematical contribution involved measuring areas and segments of plane and conic sections. Gauss's work centered on number theory. Unlike Archimedes, Gauss also used ventured into applied mathematics…… [Read More].
Deam Content as a Theapeutic Appoach: Repessed Feelings An Abstact of a Dissetation This study sets out to detemine how deams can be used in a theapeutic envionment to discuss feelings fom a deam, and how the theapist should engage the patient to discuss them to eveal the elevance of those feelings, in thei pesent, waking life.
It also discusses the meaning of epetitious deams, how medication affects the content of a deame's deams, and if theapists actually "guide" thei clients in what to say. This "guidance" might be the theapist "suggesting" to thei clients that they had suffeed some type of ealy childhood tauma, when in fact, thee wee no taumas in thei ealy childhoods.
The oigin of psychiaty is not, as it would have people believe, medicine, theapy o any othe even faintly scientific endeavo. Its oiginal pupose was not even to cue mental affliction.
Ancient Philosophy Though it is acknowledged that the words and ideas of Socrates have been filtered though the thoughts of those that followed him, namely Plato, as Socrates wrote nothing himself, it is also clear that the interpretation garnered by the ancients has been profoundly felt throughout western culture. It is also clear that the body of work that survives in fragmentation recorded as prior to the Socratic philosophical revolution is a strong basis for that which followed, it can also be described as simpler or at least less complex.
The main difference according to the writings of the post Socratic philosophers between Socratic ethics and pre-Socratic ethics are twofold. On the one hand the idea that philosophical questions are not and cannot be seen as finite and on the other the establishment of Socrates as the supreme model of the philosophical life and all its trappings. The impact that…… [Read More].
History of Chinese Mathematics. Chinese Mathematics In ancient China, the science of mathematics was subsumed under the larger practice of suan chu, or the "art of calculation. Their early mathematical studies have influenced science among neighboring Asian countries and beyond.
This paper examines the history of mathematical knowledge in China. It looks at the early Chinese achievements in the field of mathematics, including the decimal system, calculation of pi, the use of counting aids and the application of mathematical principles to everyday life. It also examines the influence of Indian and later, European mathematical knowledge into Chinese mathematics. Early China Unlike the ancient Greeks who prized knowledge for its own sake, much of the scientific studies conducted in ancient China were spurred by practical everyday needs.
Because of its geographic location, China was prone to…… [Read More]. Nova Episode the Proof. Compare and contrast this with your own experiences with mathematics, particularly your approach toward learning about new mathematical problems and trying to solve them.
It is a story of determination, setting goals, and finding out that solutions come from many different places and ideas. You have to be open to new ideas when you try to solve anything, whether it is a complex mathematical problem, or a personal problem.
The proof is really about keeping an open mind, and looking at all the angles of a problem. Skepticism Is Defined as a School of. It is not always possible to find the solution of an equation by algebraic or analytical methods such as factorising. In maths equations can be solved using various methods. A very common and efficient method in solving equations is algebraically. But not all equations can be solved algebraically; these equations must be solved using numeric methods.
I will study three specific numeric methods on different equations. I will be testing the numeric I was firstly given the task of finding the equation of the quadratic graph which passes through the points 5,0 , 3,0 , 0, To solve this I began by drawing a rough sketch of what I thought the graph would look like with these points, as below: This study aims to propose an intervention program covering the secondary mathematics subject.
The academe, both faculty and students, shall benefit through having a guided program to increase the quality of the mathematics teaching-learning process.
Knowledge-the sum of what is known. It symbolizes the black man. When can you knowledge? How is knowledge gained? Through study, learning, listening, trial and error, observing, reflection 2. Wisdom is wise actions, ways and words. Sorry, but copying text is forbidden on this website.
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Pythagoras's Theory of Harmony of the Spheres - Pythagoras is considered, not only as one of the greatest mathematicians in history, but also for his works concerning music, philosophy, astrology, and many others for all the discoveries made by him.
Essay: Pythagoras. Pythagoras was a very significant person in the history of the world. He made many contributions to the fields of math, music, and astronomy. Pythagoras’s teachings and beliefs that were once taught by him in his own school in ancient Greece, are still taught today.
Pythagoras Essay Pythagoras theorem Abstract Pythagoras theorem gives a relationship of the three sides of right angled triangles. It is extended to draw relationship among the interior angles of such right-angles triangles to form what is known as trigonometrical ratios. Pythagoras Essay Pythagoras was a Greek thinker and contributor to preSocratic philosophy who was born on the isle of Samos. He fled tyranny to establish a school in southern Italy at Croton, which contained both scientific and mystical streams of thought.
Pythagoras Essay Pythagoras of Samos Pythagoras of Samos was born sometime around BC and since then has been said to be a strange and mysterious man. There are no writings of Pythagoras himself but his teachings and beliefs continue to influence modern philosophers and scientists. The Pythagorean theorem is one of the earliest theorems. This famous theorem is named after the Greek mathematician and Philosopher, Pythagoras.